Everett W. Howe: Higher-order Carmichael numbers, Math. Comp. 69 (2000) 1711–1719, MR 2001a:11012, Zbl 0966.11006.

(An official and an unofficial electronic version are available.)

We define a Carmichael number of order m to be a composite integer n such that nth-power raising defines an endomorphism of every Z/nZ-algebra that can be generated as a Z/nZ-module by m elements. We give a simple criterion to determine whether a number is a Carmichael number of order m, and we give a heuristic argument (based on an argument of Erdos for the usual Carmichael numbers) that indicates that for every m there should be infinitely many Carmichael numbers of order m. The argument suggests a method for finding examples of higher-order Carmichael numbers; we use the method to provide examples of Carmichael numbers of order 2.